Only 27 sculptures by Amedeo Modigliani 1884-1920 are known to exist. In his sculpture, Modigliani, Italian painter and sculptor, tried to capture the raw, primitive and mysterious power of African masks, as well as the beatific smiles of Cambodian or Khmer heads. In their hardness, Modigliani's sculptures represent a conscious attempt to get away from the soft modelled surfaces of Rodin's sculpture. They are also part of a modernist trend toward "direct carving" i.e. works that are simple and directly carved by the sculptor, instead of being part of an elaborate process involving many assistants and a foundry.