Pubblicato il 21/08/11 ed aggiornato il

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Gustav Klimt ~ Art Nouveau painter




Klimt, Gustav (b Baumgarten, nr. Vienna, 14 July 1862; d Vienna, 6 Feb. 1918). Austrian painter, draughtsman, and designer, one of the leading figures in one of the most exciting epochs of Vienna's cultural history. Early in his career he was highly successful as a painter of lavish ornamental schemes in the grandiose tradition of Makart, whose staircase decoration in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna he completed after Makart's death in 1884. In spite of his official academic successes, Klimt was drawn to avant-garde art, and his work was influenced by Impressionism, Symbolism and Art Nouveau.
Gustav Klimt 1862 -1918 | Austrian Art Nouveau painter
Gustav Klimt 1862 -1918 | Austrian Art Nouveau painter
Discontent with the conservative attitudes of the Viennese Artists' Association led him and a group of friends to resign in 1897 and set up their own organization, the Sezession, of which he was elected president. In a short time Klimt thus went from being a pillar of the establishment to a hero of the avant-garde, and this new role was confirmed when his enormous allegorical mural paintings for Vienna University were denounced as nonsensical and pornographic. (Klimt was given the commission in 1894 and abandoned it in 1905; the paintings-entitled Jurisprudence, Medicine, and Philosophy-were destroyed by fire in 1945.) Although official commissions dried up after this, he continued to be much in demand with private patrons, as a portraitist as well as a painter of mythological and allegorical themes. He was highly responsive to female beauty (he was a great womanizer) and in both his portraits and his subject pictures he stresses the allure and mystery of womanhood.
Gustav Klimt 1862 -1918 | Austrian Art Nouveau painter

Gustav Klimt 1862 -1918 | Austrian Art Nouveau painter

Gustav Klimt 1862 -1918 | Austrian Art Nouveau painter

Gustav Klimt 1862 -1918 | Austrian Art Nouveau painter
Notable examples are the magnificent full-length portrait of his sister-in-law and close friend Emilie Flöge (1902, Historisches Mus. der Stadt, Vienna) and Judith I (1901, Österreichische Galerie, Vienna), one of the archetypal images of the femme fatale. Characteristically, the figures in Klimt's paintings are treated more or less naturalistically but embellished-in the background or their clothing-with richly decorative patterns recalling butterfly or peacock wings, creating a highly distinctive style of extraordinarily lush sensuality. The erotic aspect of his work is even more pronounced in his drawings, most of which were done as independent works rather than as preparatory studies for paintings: typically they show naked or semi-naked women in a state of sexual arousal.
Gustav Klimt 1862 -1918 | Austrian Art Nouveau painter

Gustav Klimt 1862 -1918 | The Secession movement 1890-1914

In addition to paintings and drawings, Klimt did a good deal of design work for the Wiener Werkstätte. Most of this was fairly modest, but the great exception was the major commission of his later years-the mosaics (executed 1909-11) for the dining room of the Palais Stoclet in Brussels, a luxury home built at huge expense for the young Belgian industrialist Adolphe Stoclet, who had just inherited the family fortune. Klimt had a great reputation in his day and was influential on some of his Viennese contemporaries, notably Kokoschka and Schiele, but his work was too personal to find much of a following. / Text Source: The Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artists. Ed Ian Chilvers. Oxford University Press 2009 Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press.







Gustav Klimt 1862 -1918 | Austrian Art Nouveau painter


Gustav Klimt 1862 -1918 | Austrian Art Nouveau painter




Gustav Klimt 1862 -1918 | Austrian Art Nouveau painter

Gustav Klimt 1862 -1918 | Austrian Art Nouveau painter

Gustav Klimt 1862 -1918 | Austrian Art Nouveau painter


Gustav Klimt 1862 -1918 | Austrian Art Nouveau painter




Gustav Klimt 1862 -1918 | Austrian Art Nouveau painter Gustav Klimt 1862 -1918 | Austrian Art Nouveau painter

Gustav Klimt 1862 -1918 | Austrian Art Nouveau painter

Gustav Klimt 1862 -1918 | Austrian Art Nouveau painter


Gustav Klimt 1862 -1918 | Austrian Art Nouveau painter

Gustav Klimt 1862 -1918 | Austrian Art Nouveau painter

Gustav Klimt 1862 -1918 | Austrian Art Nouveau painter

Gustav Klimt 1862 -1918 | Austrian Art Nouveau painter

Gustav Klimt 1862 -1918 | Austrian Art Nouveau painter












































Klimt, Gustav - Pittore Austriaco (Baumgartner, Vienna, 1862 - Vienna 1918) è stato il principale esponente della Secessione viennese. Figlio dell'incisore e orefice boemo Ernst, incominciò a lavorare seguendo la professione paterna. Nel 1867 si iscrisse alla Kunstgewerbeschule, dove nel 1878 fu suo maestro F. Laufberger, che esercitò su di lui una profonda influenza. Fu Laufberger a procurargli, nel 1880, la commissione di decorare il palazzo, appena costruito, dell'architetto Sturany sullo Schottenring a Vienna. In quest'opera, che durò due anni, K. ebbe come aiuto il fratello Ernst junior e il più anziano F. Matsch. Con gli stessi decorò nel 1882 il soffitto del teatro di Reichenberg; l'anno dopo i tre artisti lasciarono la scuola e crearono un proprio studio. Nello stile del loro maestro, che risentiva del gusto decorativo di H. Makart, produssero un numero notevole di decorazioni: teatro di Fiume, 1883; Kurhaus e teatro di Karlovy Vary (Karlsbad), 1886-88; scalea del Burgtheater di Vienna. Nel 1891 cominciarono a dipingere le lunette sopra la scalinata del Kunsthistorisches Museum. Sono i primi lavori in cui l'opera di K. si distingue da quella degli altri due membri del gruppo, la cui attività fu interrotta in seguito alla morte del fratello Ernst nel 1892.
Gli anni immediatamente successivi furono per Klimt ricchi di esperienze e di ricerche volte verso le problematiche del Post-impressionismo (Musica, 1895, Monaco, Neue Pinakothek). Sempre più in contrasto con le autorità accademiche, nel 1897, seguendo l'esempio di quanto era già avvenuto a Monaco nel 1892, con altri 19 artisti fondò la Secessione viennese (Vereinigung bildender Künstler Österreichs, Secession), della quale fu presidente fino al 1905. Dal 1900-1903 fu incaricato di dipingere tre composizioni, ispirate alla Filosofia, alla Medicina e alla Giurisprudenza, per l'università di Vienna, tutte rifiutate e aspramente criticate perché ritenute oscene. In una alternativa di crudo naturalismo e di astratto decorativismo, Klimt aveva infatti cercato di esaltarvi la natura e la vita in antitesi con le convenzioni sociali. Intanto si maturava il suo stile più personale e inconfondibile, impostato su una preziosità inesauribile, raggiunta con l'uso di materiali diversi (oro, vetri), in un continuo svolgersi di forma dal reale all'astrazione decorativa. A formare la cultura figurativa di Klimt concorrono motivi bizantini e giapponesi e, soprattutto, elementi dello stile "floreale". La pittura di Klimt mira a un'espressione raffinata, piena di sottintesi letterarî e simbolici, al cui cerebrale estetismo si associano accenti di acuta sensualità. La sua ricerca di sottili ritmi decorativi di linee e di colori ebbe grande influenza per la formazione delle correnti astrattiste, e dello stesso Kandinskij. / ©Treccani, Enciclopedia Italiana


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